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Frequently Asked Questions

You may have a lot of questions about our products and services, which is why we've compiled a list of the top 10 frequently asked questions (FAQs). You can easily get quick answers to some of the most common questions.

For more detailed information about our products and services around our PICO technology, we have a comprehensive document with all the questions you may have. You can download this document and find answers to all your queries about PICO. We hope these resources will help you get the information you need to make informed decisions.

What can PICO measure?

With PICO you can measure single proteins, protein interactions, and post-translational modifications from any soluble biological sample. For a consistent nomenclature, we call them 'targets'. For the PICO assay, a pair of antibodies of your choice is required for each target.

What are the advantages of PICO compared to other protein detection assays?

PICO is designed to outperform existing protein detection and quantification solutions (e.g. western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, ELISA, or PLA) and to introduce powerful experimental possibilities:

  • Ultra-high sensitivity: the limit of detection (LOD) of PICO is in the femtomolar range, meaning with mediocre antibodies you can detect 100 molecules per cell. To provide a practical example for such a low amount of target, 2 μl of lysed material containing 10,000 cells (less than a single 96-well amount of cells) can provide the necessary protein concentration that can be detected by PICO with high confidence. PICO can detect what has been undetectable to date.
  • Zero background noise: Other immunoassays have background reactions (signal without antibody binding), which interfere with clear, sensitive measurements. PICO is free from it: during the dPCR step, the sample is compartmentalized to exclude the possibility of target-independent background reactions. Therefore, there is zero signal in case no target is present in the dPCR reaction.
  • Parallelism: PICO offers extensive flexibility in designing parallel assays by using four different labeled antibodies. For example, measurement of a phosphorylation-dependent protein interaction is possible in one PICO experiment, for which you need three labeled antibodies.

What is a couplex?

A couplex is a target bound by two DNA-labeled antibodies and is the molecular detection unit of the PICO assay. The couplexes are detected and counted using a digital PCR instrument and the number of target molecules is calculated using Actome's web-based AMULATOR software.

How much more sensitive is PICO compared to a western blot?

Our PICO vs. western blot application note highlights a study where we detected the oncoprotein HER2 in two different breast cancer cell lines, BT474 and MCF7. Using the therapeutic antibodies trastuzumab (TTZ) and pertuzumab (PTZ) for detection showed that PICO, in this example, is approximately 200-fold more sensitive than a western blot.

How much lab work is required for the PICO assay?

The PICO assay itself is a two-day process. On the first day, the sample is lysed and combined with the DNA-labeled antibody mix for overnight incubation. The next day the sample is highly diluted and mixed with the dPCR Master Mix, followed by the dPCR run.

Labeling of the antibodies with the PICO Labels is an additional two days effort. However, it is necessary to label each pair of antibodies only once since antibody labeling generates sufficient material for hundreds of PICO assays. Once labeled, the antibodies are stable for at least 6 months at 4°C. Thus, the entire PICO workflow takes 4 days including antibody labeling.

What are the requirements/recommendations concerning antibodies?

For the PICO assay, a pair of antibodies is required for each target and the user is free to choose any antibody pair for their PICO assays. The PICO assay works with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. However, we recommend using monoclonal antibodies, since they are often better characterized and defined by the antibody producer and the batch-to-batch variability is minimal. As the antibodies need to bind concurrently, choosing antibodies raised against different parts of the protein is recommended.

How stable are the labeled antibodies?

The labeled antibodies are stable for at least 12 months at 4°C.

What kinds of samples can be used in a PICO assay?

In general, every liquid, molecularly dispersed sample can be analyzed with the PICO assay, e.g. cell lysates, supernatant, blood serum, etc. The PICO Amplification Core Kit contains a lysis buffer that is recommended for cell culture samples.

How does data quantification work?

Data analysis is performed using Actome’s web-based AMULATOR software. First, the raw dPCR data is exported from your dPCR instrument. Together with a Sample Definition file provided by Actome, it is uploaded to AMULATOR for data analysis and basic statistical evaluation.

Where can I purchase the PICO kits?

The PICO kits are available for purchase in Actome’s webshop.


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